We cannot touch, see, or hear time. Clocks can show only set values. How do we learn time, then?

Chapter 1. The grammatical Present, Past, or Future

To an extent, we might think about time together with place. We can envision grammatical time in fields for the Present, Past, or Future.

1.1. BE, HAVE, and DO in practice

The verbs BE, HAVE, and DO can be the core of our grammar skills. We can use them to map grammatical time in language.

1.2. Mind practice: we think in English

In the beginning, we might feel it is really an effort to “discipline” ourselves and consciously direct our thinking. It is essential that we try.

Chapter 2. The verb form WILL

Usually, the form of the verb tells if we refer to the PRESENT, the FUTURE, or the PAST. However, the verb WILL can map on the FUTURE already in its PRESENT form.

2.1. Verb practice in the Present, Past, and Future

Not all verbs are regular. Irregular verbs happen to show speech sound patterns.
mean     meant      meant
meet     met      met
read     read      read
[I:]     [e:]     [e:]

Chapter 3. BE, HAVE, DO, and WILL in patterns

Our core BE, HAVE, DO, and WILL can make patterns for the grammatical PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE. We view the patterns as in a River of Time.

3.1. The Aspect: Simple, Progressive, or Perfect

Crossing the River of Time, we can extract the Aspects.

, . . . (e)s, 2ND form
BE . . . ING
HAVE . . . 3RD form

3.2. Personal pronouns

We could not learn good grammar without the grammatical person. We can learn the pronouns looking to our core verbs and our psychological sides.

3.3. All personal pronouns with three Aspects and Time

We can picture the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect with all personal pronouns. Our picture may look like a chart. We use a COLOR CODE, to encourage our syntax.

3.4. Personal pronouns in practice

We hold on to our mind practice from SUBCHAPTER 1.2 and exercise language patterns, thinking Time, Aspect, or Person, first or last.

Chapter 4. The Simple, Progressive, and Perfect on an abstract map

Our minds have a natural habit to associate time and place. We can connote a few words we often use for space ― as ON, IN, and TO ― with the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect Aspects.


4.1. Aspect mapping in practice

Link to subchapter 4.1. Language map practice 
Written or spoken texts do not determine our inner language. We can learn to focus on the Aspect though a phrase comes Time first, gather our verb forms from elements, as well as take language tasks "at the drop of the hat".

Chapter 5. The Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative

We use our logical capabilities also when we joke. The meaning of what we say may depend on whether we affirm, deny, or ask a question.


5.1. The logic so far

We happen to hear or say the FUTURE brings the things that are BEFORE us. We also happen to hear or say that PAST things are BEHIND us. In our minds, we could look FORWARD or BACK to events from where we always are, our PRESENT. We can join this thinking in arrow cues, to exercise.

5.2. Syntax practice with virtual words

In a virtual dimension, as a computer game, practice with virtual words might be as a bridge to language skill. Invented words allow exercise at the level of language form strictly. We also can use visuals for some help and fun, while we establish our language habits.

5.3. Syntax practice with real words

We follow standard American English, in our real verb practice. Exercise with real words always comes next to virtual word workout, in our grammar course. Appendixes 2 and 3 in the EXTRAS can help do the exercises.

Feel welcome to PATHS OF PART TWO and further journey!