There are no universal rules, on choice of grammar forms. We need to decide on our own.

Chapter 6. Past Simple or Present Perfect?

To decide between the Present Perfect or Simple Past, we consider our cognitive ground. Our time frame for Perfect tenses is going to be open. For all other Aspects, it will be closed.

1. Jill left a few minutes ago. {ON, the PAST}, Past Simple
Real time closed frame

1a. Jill has just left. {TO, the PRESENT}, Present Perfect
Real time open frame

6.1. Syntax for the Present or Past

Our ability for grammatical time depends on our syntax. We learn to keep one time reference with one sentence or clause head. Otherwise, our time frame will be broken.


6.2. Past Simple or Present Perfect: the cognitive ground

Our knowledge of the context provides the cognitive ground for our grammar.
7. I haven't seen her today.


7a. I didn't see her today.

PAST arrow CLOSED real-time frame

6.3. Word practice

Let us exercise the time frames along with vocabulary. We learn to be altogether linguistically flexible. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds.

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.
 2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.


6.4. More grammar and word practice

We can be very serious about grammar and keep a sense of humor: when we humans learn, we happen to be very formal, and this may burden our learning and language styles.

1. "He sold his vintage Chevy and nearly bought a Jeep, when he thought that his vehicle approximated an expression of his ego. A Jeep almost portended a personality change."

6.5. The Simple and the Perfect in the Past

We may want to focus on the Perfect and the Simple with reference to the PAST. We begin with only the time frames for our exercise guidance.

Chapter 7. Stative use of verbs

Many grammar resources will tell there are “stative” or “static verbs”, and even give lists of such verbs to memorize and never to use with the Progressive. We can think about our grammar cognitive ground and variables.

7.1. Word practice for hearts and minds

We can integrate our grammar, and view our reference for the PAST, PRESENT, and FUTURE as interconnected. With cognitive variables, hearts do not need to go separate from minds.

Chapter 8. The Perfect Progressive

We can view the Perfect Progressive as a merger of the Perfect and the Progressive. As a Perfect tense, the Perfect Progressive has an open time frame. We can have it for our mapping value {AT}. We may begin to think if there would be a basic value, one to work as our earthling basic variable.

8.1. The earthling basic variable


For all tenses, this is always the first element in the verb pattern to change with reference to the Time, the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE. First elements change the same in our Fields of Time, and for our value {ON}. We can have it for our earthling basic cognitive variable.

8.2. Integration: practice for all Aspects

We have only part our cues. We put verbs into the PAST, and then in the PRESENT form. We mind our Expression, the Affirmative, Negative, or Interrogative. We do not give up on a mild sense of humor.

"The grain of sand could think about wisdom. What was wisdom? It might be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand did not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary."

Chapter 9. To tell the fashion in valuable time: Modal verbs

Madame Règle can have lunch at Latimer Sauf’s restaurant every day. He always has a table for his friends and she has enough money. However, her work with Paris haute couture designers often keeps her over the lunchtime. Her coming to lunch is probable, but not certain.

Let us think about Monsieur Sauf’s birthday. Madame Règle will come to meet him. It is certain.

Chapter 9.1. The Modal syntax, PRESENT or PAST

We focus on the auxiliary HAVE. Would it make antecedent time extents altogether? Auxiliary time extents would be relative to the head time.

9.2. The Modal time frame

It can take real time to make theory, but theoretical time could never be the same as real time. Our syntactic HAVE can bring closed-frame hypothetical time. It also can be a syntactic anchor.

9.3. Detail on Modal chemistry and economy

Unless we ask a question for no reason or purpose, and expect no answer at all, we make our questions thinking about some PROBABILITY at least. Language economy may discard auxiliary time, in questions. We would ask, "didn't you have to...", rather than "mustn't you have had to..."

9.4.Modal verb practice: form relativity

Our use of the word "relativity" is not about physics or families. It is linguistic. Modal PAST forms can tell about the PAST or the PRESENT. PRESENT Modal forms can tell about the PRESENT or the FUTURE.

Chapter 10. There is grammar relativity in time galore

It is not only with Modal forms that we can observe regular relativity. PRESENT verb forms can tell about the FUTURE. PAST verb forms can tell about the PRESENT. ANTECEDENT PAST verb forms can tell about the PAST.

10.1. Linguistic form relativity: thinking real-time

Auxiliary time can work for all target grammatical time, if we mind the frame: whether it is for real time, or hypothesis time.

10.2. Linguistic relativity: the logic and the Progressive

Progressive Modal forms with auxiliary time might give us doubt: do we need to think about virtual cognitive variables? We can resolve in favor of feature transfer.

10.3. Workout for real-time talk

We can exercise Form Relativity with the Progressive and real verbs. We can make stories.

“I’d be reading horoscopes”, says Ms. Seges. “That is . . . ?” (Mr. Seges does not believe Ms. Seges would ever read horoscopes.) “This looks like a calligraphic copy of Vespucci’s letters. It was slipping out of our backyard hedge, no covers or front matter.”

10.4. More workout for real-time talk

For skill with Form Relativity, we need to be flexible with particles such as "if". They happen to have more than one meaning. "If" also can mean "when" or "as". Back with Jim Colderstone, with whom we began this part of the language journey, we can exercise Modal verbs.
*  *  *  *  *
Part Three of the language voyage can bring
Jill’s library in plain canvas
― the speech part and the determiner manner and matter;
Chantelle’s travel to the Book Cliffs
― verbal nouns and other ways of syntax to the notional time;
as well as many, many more components of our language landscape.
Feel welcome to continue with the journey (!)